The Middle Ages began in 500AD and lasted until 1000AD and they were based on classical Roman Heritage, Roman Catholic Church and Customs of Germanic Tribes. Germanic tribes include the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Angels, Saxons, Magyar, Franks and Britons. These tribes lived in current day Spain, Africa, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Ireland, Scotland and Great Britain. The Franks, in particular, settled in current day France.
The Franks were from Gaul, also known as current day France and Switzerland. In 511AD Clovis became the first King of the Franks who united all of Franks into one kingdom. After praying for a victory in battle he converted to Christianity because he won. After Clovis, someone else had to rule over the Franks.
The Kings divided land among their heirs, each generation had more rulers and therefore less land. In 700 the position, Mayors of the Palace, became the most powerful in the Frankish Kingdom. These Mayors controlled royal households and estates, armies and the policy.
Eventually, Charles Martel came into action in 732 AD and he defeated Muslims at the Battle of Tours, which prevented Europe from becoming part of the Muslim Empire. Martel's son began the Carolingian Dynasty(751AD-987AD) and instead of the Mayors being most powerful, there were kings once again.
The Carolingian Dynasty from 751AD-987AD became the new kings for the Frankish Empire. Pepin the Short was Charles Martel's son and forced Lombards out of Rome which earned the pope's appreciation. He was made King of the Franks, appointed by Pope and the Carolingian Dynasty began.